> O-ring, Seal
Failure Analysis > Part
and Seal Failure Part 1
Over-Compression and Spiral Failure
The o-ring or seal develops ragged edges (generally on the low-pressure
side) which appear tattered.
Factors: Excessive clearances. Excessive pressure. Low-modulus/hardness
elastomer. Excessive gland fill. Irregular clearance gaps. Sharp
gland edges. Improper sizing.
Solutions: Decrease clearances. Higher-modulus/hardness elastomer.
Proper gland design. Use of polymer backup rings.
The o-ring or seal exhibits parallel flat surfaces (corresponding
to the contact areas) and may develop circumferential splits within
the flattened surfaces.
Factors: Improper design-failure to account for thermal or
chemical volume changes, or excessive compression.
Solutions: Gland design should take into account material
responses to chemical and thermal environments.
The o-ring or seal exhibits cuts or marks which spiral around its
Factors: Difficult or tight installation (static). Slow reciprocating
speed. Low-modulus/hardness elastomer. Irregular O-ring surface
finish (including excessive parting line). Excessive gland width.
Irregular or rough gland surface finish. Inadequate lubrication.
Solutions: Correct installation procedures. Higher modulus
elastomer. Internally lubed elastomers. Proper gland design. Gland
surface finish of 8-16 microinch RMS. And possible use of polymer
Topic: Chemical Degradation,
Thermal Degradation and Explosive Decompression
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